This work focuses on the transmodernity of recreational practices. For this, it offers an analysis of the project of wayfaring. It is a recreational practice, where the itinerary is not completely fixed in advance, lasting a few hours or a few months, in an exclusively or partially mountain environment, by means of non-motorized progression, without the support of a travel agency. Among other things, the project approach involves personal motivation of the practitioner, in connection with his identity and his life project. Wayfaring is thus considered as an existential practice that built the identity of the practitioner through the management of uncertainty, inviting him to creativity. The practitioner is not always alone in this task of management of uncertainty, and may decide to enter into a relationship with the inhabitants. Wayfaring then invites him to adopt a relational ethics. Creativity, namely integrative, and relational ethics, can be put in relation with the concept of transmodernity by Dussel (1994): the integration of the reason of the Other.
The first part of this work identifies conceptual and methodological resources. And, this, in the context of an individual and interpretative paradigm. The hypothesis of an integrative creative habitation that would be at the heart of the transmodern wayfaring emerges through a deconstruction of the modern approach of project (Boutinet, 2012), based on the logic of anticipation from the achievement of a goal, and the postmodern approach, based on the fragmentation of the goals and the loss of overall sense. The transmodern project of wayfaring would be based on a creative process, integrating otherness, and redefining an existential purpose while implementing the project. This practice is a process of individuation (Martuccelli, 2005), based on a mesh (Ingold, 2011a) with the environment as a whole: physical, material, human, all the events. This mesh involves an ecological body (Andrieu & Sirost, 2014) and a creative body. The individual paradigm is thus expanded to a plurality of cognitive and behavioral resources. The second part of the thesis exposes the fieldwork on wayfarers. One concerns the chronological dimension of the project of wayfaring, since the period before leaving, the emergence of a first idea of travel, the realization of the project and the coming back. The other part concerns the process, based on the approach of the unexpected, the body and the physical and human environment. The plan of the wayfaring project appears as a socio-praxic matrix that facilitates a creative process which is integrative of physical, natural and relational otherness. If most of the elements of the matrix are activated, the itinerant adopted a creative integrative process, and eventually achieves an existential purpose aligning the various dimensions of its existence: physical, emotional, geographical, professional... This purpose is then translated into a new common good: political, humanitarian action, artistic work, ... The elements of the matrix are about the habitation during wayfaring, in its ordinary dimension of resolution of problems and constraints of everyday life (distanced and then rebuilt during the trip), as well as in its dimension of progression in the itinerary, until the reintegration of the usual living environment. The findings offer to consider wayfaring as a potential socio-recreative laboratory. In the recreational environment of wayfaring, the practitioner can learn relational ethics, an actual capability (Flipo, 2005) of wayfaring, and, when back, he or she can make a unique contribution to their living environment.