The comparison between the International Chamber of Commerce and the International Organisation of Employers over the 20th/21th centuries aims at challenging the idea of a unified and homogeneous business space at the global level. Born in the aftermath of the First World War to defend the interest of private enterprise at the international stage, the ICC and the IOE have evolved quite independently ever since. Moreover, they also remain essentially different in terms of their political agendas and professional cultures. While these differences are often presented as ingredients of complementarity, to what extent can they also be considered as potential sources of tensions and divisions? Exploring the diversity and relative autonomy of transnational business actors, this paper also aims at contributing to the emerging dialogue between international political economy and international political sociology.